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Recognize the Difference between Qualitative and Quantitative Methods

7 June 2024

Oleh: Admin

Doc: prathanchorruangsak on Envato Elements

In the world of research, there are two main methods that are often used, namely qualitative and quantitative methods. These two methods have different approaches to collecting and analyzing data.

Understanding the difference between the two is crucial for researchers to determine which method is most suitable for their research.

Let’s take a closer look at the differences between qualitative and quantitative methods.

Qualitative Methods

Waruwu (2023) reveals that qualitative methods focus on in-depth exploration of social phenomena and human behavior. This method is often used to understand the perspectives of individuals or groups, as well as the context behind their actions and decisions.

This approach is generally carried out by in-depth interviews with sources until data saturation is achieved, quoted from Widjaja (2017).

Here are some of the main characteristics of qualitative methods.

1. Descriptive Data
The data collected is usually in the form of text, such as interview transcripts, observation notes, and documents.

2. Open Approach
Research questions in qualitative methods tend to be open and flexible, allowing researchers to explore topics in depth.

3. Thematic Analysis
Data is analyzed through the identification of themes or patterns that emerge from the data.

4. Small Sample
This method often involves a smaller, but in-depth sample. This aims to gain more detailed and comprehensive insights.

An example of the use of qualitative methods is research on patient experiences in the health care system.

Through in-depth interviews, researchers gain a better understanding of patients’ feelings and perceptions.

Quantitative Methods

On the other hand, Jailani (2023) explains that quantitative methods focus on measuring and analyzing numerical data. This method is often used to test hypotheses, measure variables, and determine relationships between variables.

Here are some of the main characteristics of quantitative methods.

1. Numerical Data
The data collected is usually in the form of numbers, such as survey results, experimental data, and statistics.

2. Structured Approach
Research questions with quantitative methods tend to be closed and specific, with a structured research design.

3. Statistical Analysis
Data is analyzed using statistical techniques to identify significant relationships and differences.

4. Large Samples
These methods often involve larger samples to ensure results can be generalized to a wider population.

An example of using quantitative methods is a national survey on media consumption habits. This involves numerical data from thousands of respondents which can provide a broader picture of behavioral trends and patterns.

Choosing the Right Method

The choice between qualitative and quantitative methods depends on the purpose of the research, the research questions, and the type of data required.

In some cases, researchers may combine these two methods in a blended approach to gain more comprehensive insights.

Understanding the difference between qualitative and quantitative methods is an important step in the research process.

Qualitative methods provide an in-depth understanding of social phenomena, while quantitative methods provide data that can be measured and analyzed statistically.

By choosing the right method, researchers can produce more valid and relevant findings. (KJ/AW/KJ)

 

Reference

Jailani, M. S. (2023). Teknik Pengumpulan Data Dan Instrumen Penelitian Ilmiah Pendidikan Pada Pendekatan Kualitatif dan Kuantitatif. IHSAN: Jurnal Pendidikan Islam, 1(2), 1-9.

Prajitno, S. B. (2013). Metodologi penelitian kuantitatif. Jurnal. Bandung: UIN Sunan Gunung Djati.(tersedia di http://komunikasi. uinsgd. ac. id).

Waruwu, M. (2023). Pendekatan penelitian pendidikan: metode penelitian kualitatif, metode penelitian kuantitatif dan metode penelitian kombinasi (Mixed Method). Jurnal Pendidikan Tambusai, 7(1), 2896-2910.

Widjaja, Y. (2017). Pemanfaatan Kuis Sebagai Asesmen Formatif Dalam Pembelajaran Blok Di Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Tarumanagara. Jurnal Muara Sains, Teknologi, Kedokteran dan Ilmu Kesehatan, 1(2), 39-50.

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