CIVIL ENGINEERING JOURNAL, March 2013
JAKARTA FLOOD PREVENTION WITH A TRUE CAUSE
Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia, is located in the coastal lowlands. Against this geographic setting, floods were on the agenda when it was built in the Dutch era. However, these several decades of industrial-urban development had made the past flood infrastructure be unfit for the present settings, having resulted in the aggravation of the floods. To cope with the situation, a series of flood prevention projects have been implemented. But they haven’t bettered the situation but rather worsened. In such a case, the projects must be reviewed and revised. Strangely, a measure is about to start with a past-pattern project. Those seem to continue until everybody feels, ‘enough is enough’. The poor performance of the past projects is the result of wrong recognition in the cause of the floods. The past projects assumed the cause in the land, but really it’s in the sea. This paper has three purposes: viz.(i)to deny the appeared cause theories on Jakarta floods, (ii) to submit writer’s cause, and (iii) to recommend the appropriateJakarta flood prevention project.
Keywords:Dutch era,Jakarta flood prevention, Floods in lowlands, Effect of sediment at estuary
1 Professor, Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, IBA University, Indonesia.
RAW WATER QUALITY DEVELOPMENT: STRATEGY AND CONSTRAINT.
A CASE STUDY AT SEVERAL DISTRICT CORPORATION OF DRINKING WATER (Perusahaan Daerah Air Minum/PDAM)
Wati Pranoto1, Ratna Hidayat2,and Reri Hidayat3
In one hand, the demand of Raw Water has increased significantly,following Raw Water scarcity supplies in 308 PDAM. On the other hand, the advantage of using river raw water is based on its plentiful quantity for supporting the services of urban water. However, most of the available water is often polluted. Thiscaused greater operation cost compared to the operational cost of spring water. The river raw water quality for PDAM in Sumatera, Java, Kalimantan and Sulawesi are not suitable to be used for drinking water, due to number of parameters exceeding the concentration criteria, which are: (1).BOD: 3.5-52 mg/L(criteria 2 mg/L); (2).COD:12–87 mg/L (criteria 10 mg/L); (3).Dissolved Oxygen too low: 2- 4.5 mg/L(Criteria greater than 6 mg/L);(4).Detergent too high: 0.20 – 0.75 mg/L(criteria 0.20 mg/L); (5). Concentration of Fecal Coli bacteria at PDAM Jakarta: 2,800,000 Total Amount/ 100 mL (Criteria 100 Total Amount /100 mL).Another problem is caused by sea water intrusion which had increased the concentration of chloride (15,200 mg/L) and sulfate (2,900 mg/L). Strategies such as technical and law enforcementare needed.
Keywords: PDAM, Raw water, Polluted water sources, Technical strategy, Law enforcement
1Department of Civil Engineering, Tarumanagara University, Jakarta, Indonesia
2Research Institute of Water Resources Development, Public Work Department Jl.Ir.H.Juanda 193 – 40135, Bandung.E-mail: email@example.com
3Engineer Water Resources Management (Tenaga Ahli Pengelolaan Sumber Daya Air)
DOMINANT FACTORS ON INCREASING MATERIAL
COST IN CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS
Bambang Endroyo1, Bambang E. Yuwono2, and Agung Fajar Martha3
Inconstruction projects, materialsandequipmenthas an important role whose value could reachup to 50-60% of the totalproject costs, while supplyingthe materialshould reach a valuebetween25-40% of theproject cost. On theother hand, the additionaltimeofordering, shippingandhandlingof constructionmaterials might impactthe time schedule ofthe project as well. Quantitatively, the cost of procurementof materialsmust be5-10% higher, tocover thelossandthe occurrence ofreworkin the field. However the question that appears – what are thedominantfactorsthat can cause the increase of material cost ? A questionnaire has been developed and distributed to the construction practitioners in Jabotabek (Jakarta, Bogor, Tangerang, Bekasi) to solve the problem. 30 filled questionnaires were analyzed usingAnalytical Hierarchy Processmethod. The results are: highlevels of competition, the use ofwastematerialsat the site, the qualityof materialthatis not within specificationsandincreased coststo expeditebureaucracy,are the dominantfactorsthat resultsthe increase incostof constructionmaterialsonproject implementation.
Keywords: Construction, Cost, Equipment, Material, Construction practitioners.
1Civil Engineering Department, Semarang State University, Semarang, Indonesia
2Civil Engineering Department, Trisakti University, Jl. Kyai Tapa, Jakarta, Indonesia
3Civil Engineering Department, Trisakti University, Jakarta, Indonesia
ROAD USER BEHAVIOUR AT CROSSING FACILITIES
Gede Pasek Suardika1
There is an increasing number of accident victims every year. The factors that caused the accidentare 86.23% of human factor, 6.15% of vehicle factor, 5.46% of road factor and 2.16% of environment factor. However, it could be said that road accident is a silent disaster.
Besides, among those road accident victims are student who go to school or back from school especially the student of elementary school. Those schoolchildsare the road users who have lack of experience and tend to be careless. Most of them have less knowledge on how to crossing the road safely and more effective. To protect the students, the government has provide School Safety Zone (ZoSS) facilities on the road in front of the school. ZoSS is a speed zone based on the time which could manage a vehicle’s speed in the school area. The use of traffic engineering such as speed limit marking, a “red” road marking by School Safety Zone written on it.
Keywords: Road accident, School Safety Zone (ZoSS), Speed zone, Traffic engineering
1Deputy Director of Safety Management, Directorate Land Transport Safety, Directorate General Land Transport. Ministry of Transportation, Republic of Indonesia
OUTLIER LABELING USING MINIMUM SPANNING TREE METHOD
Dyah E. Herwindiati1 and Maman A. Djauhar
Outlier’s detection in multivariate scheme problem is a fundamental and important parts. There are various criteria developed based on the notion of distance such as Euclidean distance, Mahalanobis distance and single linkage distance. Other criteria are based on the notion of measure of closeness between a group of clean observations and the total group. Within this paper, the method of detection outlier into two steps, i.e., outlier labeling and outlier testing are discussed clearly. For outlier labeling, it is suggested to use the notion of minimum spanning tree which is very efficient. In the second step, outlier testing will be conducted based on the exact distribution of the classical Mahalanobis distance between each labeled outlier and the mean vector of the group of clean observation.
Keywords: Mahalanobis distance, minimum spanning tree, multivariate outlier, outlier labeling.
1Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Information Technology, Tarumanagara University, Jakarta, Indonesia.
2Senior Lecturer, Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
BUILDING STRUCTURE SYSTEM OF CHINESE ARCHITECTURE, PAST AND PRESENT
Chinese architecture from time to time show a rapid growth.In the past times, they used a wooden structure system and based on a local culture tradition to show aesthetics, value and nature,butin the present times they beginto shift towards by modern technology, more creative, “free” and “unusual” forms, out of the structures system paradigms as seen as in the Central Chinese Television building, National swimming center, the Beijing Olympic stadium and many others.
Keywords:Geometric, Paradigms, Skeleton structures, Cantilever structures, Long span structures.
1 Magister, Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, Tarumanagara University, Indonesia.
CIVIL ENGINEERING JOURNAL, September 2012
CONSTRUCTION RISK ANALYSIS ON UMBULAN DRINKING WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM
Wateno Oetomo1 and Firta Riyanti Dewi Kurnia Sari2
Umbulan Drinking Water Supply System (SPAM : Sistem Penyedia Air Minum) project is a government priority project that consists in MP3EI (Master Plan Percepatan & Perluasan Pembangunan Ekonomi Indonesia) with consession period for 25 years. This long term period could cause many risks, due to the uncertainty condition. Each risk is specific and complex. In construction, the risks are various and complex too, and detail risk analysis is an absolute necessary. The aim of this research is to find the sequence of risk level, and to determine the appropiate construction method for SPAM Umbulan transmission pipelines installation.
Keywords: Umbulan drinking water supply system, construction risk, construction method, pipeline installation method.
1Professor, Civil Engineering Department, 17 Agustus 1945 University, Surabaya, Indonesia
2Lecturer, Civil Engineering Department, 17 Agustus 1945 University, Surabaya, Indonesia
JAKARTA SHOPPING CENTER EVOLUTION FROM 1965-2013
Jakarta in early 60’s was marked by numerous national building being built. At that time, shopping centre was introduced in Jakarta for the first time, aimed to provide a new market place to shop. Since then, the function of shopping centre had been evolved. The evolution was very close related to the image of the Indonesian government at that time. As Jakarta itself evolved, so did the shopping centre, both physically and functionally. Nowadays, Jakarta’s inhabitants are used to go to shopping centre as their recreation destination since no proper open air public places that can be facilitated by the Jakarta Municipality government. On the other hand, many new shopping centres with fresh idea, unique concept, and many other facilities are being built to serve the people of Jakarta. The growth of shopping centre itself has changed the ‘face’ of Jakarta and vice versa. With this paper, the writer tries to see the evolution of Jakarta shopping centre, especially in connection with multi layers and specific social condition of Jakarta’s inhabitants.
Keywords: Evolution, Jakarta shopping center, national building, social condition.
 Lecturer in Urban Planning and Real Estate Development Department, Tarumanagara University, Jakarta.
STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF VERTICAL EVACUATION FROM TSUNAMI DISASTER AT Padang, wEST SUMATERA, INDONESIA
Febrin Anas Ismail1, Fauzan2, Abdul Hakam3 and Lukman Murdiansyah4
Area around Padang is prone to earthquake and tsunami concerning the location in adjacent to the subduction of Indo-Australian and the Eurasian plates. The subduction area is the main source of strong earthquake which might generate tsunami. The relatively flat topography and the high population density of Padang are the main problems that lead this city is vulnerable to tsunami disaster. Moreover, horizontal evacuation is difficult to be done around area of Padang due to the complexity. Then, the alternative way to evacuate the victims from this disaster is by doing it vertically to the top of high buildings. Other problem is Padang has limited high buildings at the moment. This paper describes the structural analysis and design of a building which is appropriate to evacuate the victims of tsunami disaster vertically. The analysis involving as well the calculation of tsunami load in terms of hydrodynamic load on the structure. The results show that the structure could be properly designed vertically and used for vertical evacuation from tsunami.
Keywords: Earthquake, tsunami, vertical evacuation, structural desaign.
1 Lecturer, Department of Civil Engineering, Andalas University, Padang, West Sumatera, Indonesia
2 Lecturer, Department of Civil Engineering, Andalas University, Padang, West Sumatera, Indonesia
3 Lecturer, Department of Civil Engineering, Andalas University, Padang, West Sumatera, Indonesia
4 Student, Department of Civil Engineering, Andalas University, Padang, West Sumatera, Indonesia
AIR TRAFFIC AT INDONESIA MAJOR AIRPORTS
Leksmono Suryo Putranto
Indonesia is an archipelago consists of island where separated one and another in long distances between major cities. Consequently, air transport is very important. Indonesia has 164 airports, 25 aiports of them serve both domestic and international flights. This paper discusses the performance of Indonesian major airports. 18 major airports for domestic flights and 10 major airports for international flights were analyzed. From some comparison charts between the airports, it was found that major hubs, e.g. Jakarta, Surabaya and Makassar Airports were dominant in terms of yearly domestic total aircraft movements, total passengers and total weight of cargo. For international flights Surabaya was replaced by Denpasar (Bali).
Keywords: Indonesia, airports, hubs, aicraft movement, passenger, cargo.
VALUE ENGINEERING APPROACH IN DETERMINING FLYOVER CONSTRUCTION METHOD
Flyover is a construction that connects two areas passed through the underneath traffic. In consequence, The construction method plays an important role in the construction process of a flyover. This paper examined cost savings which at the same time maintain the basic function of construction methods. The construction methods that will be analyzed by using Value Engineering are the Method of Balance Cantilever with Launching Gantry, Method of Balance Cantilever with Lifting Frame, and Method of Balance Cantilever with Crane. The results of the life cycle cost analysis show that method of Balance Cantilever with Crane is superior than the other two methods in terms of saving and quality added value.
Keywords: Construction methods, balance cantilever, value engineering, life cycle cost.
 Master Graduate in Contractor Management of Tarumanagara University, Jakarta
CIVIL ENGINEERING JOURNAL, March 2012
INVESTIGATION OF FAILURE AND PRESTRESSING FORCE
AT THE END ZONE OF PRESTRESSED CONCRETE BEAM
Prestressed force at the end zone of the beam transferred through the anchorage causes critical stresses both in compression and tension. Due to this force, four components i.e., casting, anchor head, strands, concrete (compression and tension) may experience crucial stresses. These four components are designed to prevent the premature failure of the beam. However, there is no direct correlation among these four components. In order to maximize the bearing capacity at the end zone, the stirrups and confinements are provided in the design based on codes. A number of tests have been performed to confirm the codes. In this research, the impact of stirrups and confinements to the maximum prestressing force will be studied. In addition, the pattern of cracks and the maximum prestressing force when the first crack occurs are also observed. 33 models with different dimensions and properties are prepared and tested. The results are presented in Tables, Graphs and compared with the estimated values obtained from the codes.
Keywords: Prestressing force, Anchor head, Cracks, End-zone, Confinements, Stirrups, Trajectories, Tendons, Failure.
 Professor, Civil Engineering Department, Tarumanagara University, Jakarta
 Commissioner of PT. Gerbang Sukses Karya, Batam
OPTIMIZATION OF FLY ASH AND SILICA FUME AS MATERIALS SUBSTITUTION FOR CEMENT WITH TERNARY SYSTEM C-A-S
Abdul Karim Hadi
This paper had successfully evaluated the optimization of fly ash and silica fume which have a potential to be substituted partially with cement based on C-A-S Ternary System. The application of C-A-S Ternary System optimization concept is based on two basic philosophies of how to formulate the equation of balance and substance fusion between the cement and fly ash or between the cement and silica fume. The formulation of those equations is being constructed in the form of C-A-S Ternary triangle (CaO – Al2O3 – SiO2).The optimization value is procured from the transfomation of chemical parameter to mathematics trigonometry form. The analysis result showed that by using the diagram phase of C-A-S Ternary System, the optimum percentage of fly ash is 18,84%, whereas silica fume is 11,78%.
Keywords: Fly ash, Silica fume, Optimization, Ternary System, Subtitution.
 Doctoral Graduated of Tarumanagara University, Jakarta
Senior Lecturer at Muslim University, Ujung Pandang
OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE ROLE IN EVALUATION OF URBAN DRAINAGE SERVICE LEVEL
Sih Andayani, Bambang E. Yuwono2, and Soekrasno3
Every infrastructure requires thorough maintenance in order to keep its functions. However, due to the Government financial shortage, maintaining those infrastructures becomes a very difficult task because it cannot be maximumly done especially urban drainage systems. It causes urban drainage service level to decline rapidly and makes huge amount of puddles in rainy days. One of many available solutions is to improve service level in limited fund by creating a tool to determine urban drainage handling priority scale. The scale will determine which drainage needs to be repaired or rehabilitated so that drainage handling become effective and efficient (Andayani, Yuwono, Soekrasno, 2011). The tool is basically a series of drainage network appraisal procedures which is reviewed from many related aspects. In the earlier research also done by the researcher, indicators of service level which contributed significantly to urban drainage service level systems have been obtained from a survey of 30 respondents. The next research question is ”how important operational and maintenance role to urban drainage service level?”. To answer this research question, an advanced research is conducted and the level measurement of every indicator has been obtained which was taken from survey result of 130 respondents. Among these respondents are Government official, public, and college students from different educational as well as cultural background of all around Indonesia. In data processing, the researcher used Structural Equation Model with the help of AMOS program. The result is that operational and maintenance factor contribute significantly and dominantly to urban drainage service level.
Keywords: Level, Service, Drainage, Urban, Operation, Maintenance.
2 Civil Engineering, Trisakti University. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
3 Civil Engineering, Trisakti University.
INVESTIGATION ON CAUSES OF TUNNEL ROOF CAVE-IN TRIGGERED BY SIMULTANEOUS BLASTING IN DAM PROJECT, WEST JAVA, INDONESIA
Chaidir Anwar Makarim, Dicky Junaidy2, and Gopta Andika Pratama3
Forensic investigation conducted on cave-in of tunnel roof built on claystone and breccia soil in Dam Project – West Java, Indonesia had strongly indicated that it was triggered by simultaneous blasting carried out at the surface of the spillway. The roof collapse in the diversion tunnel is within 60 meters distance from the center of the blasting. The rock layer which made the roof of the diversion tunnel was Breccia Layer that has sheared zone (crack). This paper presents a disturb case by analyzing the effect of simultaneous blasting on tunnel roof in 2D/ 3D Finite Element modeling.
Keywords: 2D / 3D Finite element, Simultaneous blasting, Diversion tunnel, Crack.
 Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Tarumanagara University, Jakarta, Indonesia.
2 Commissioner of PT. Geoforensik Manggala Pratama, Jakarta, Indonesia
3 Commissioner of PT. Geoforensik Manggala Pratama, Jakarta, Indonesia
*also published in the 1st International Conference on Sustainable Civil Engineering Structures and Construction Materials (SCESCM), May 11 – 13, 2012, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
INFLUENTIAL FACTORS ON
THE PROBABILISTIC DURATION OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECT IN JAKARTA
Estimating construction process is somehow similar to an art. This concept becomes more appropriate when process estimating is faced with uncertain condition like such in developing country, Indonesia. The problem is about how to alter the uncertainty into a certain probabilistic calculation which could be used in estimating. The concept of probabilistic scheduling method itself has been developed since then, known as PERT (Program Evaluation Review Technique), which is commonly being used in manufacture process. Since a construction process is unique, gathering data to calculate the optimistic and the pessimistic duration, as the method requirement, becomes difficult. An alternate solution to calculate that type of duration is proposed by using some influencing factors. This paper describes the factors identification and reducing for each type of probabilistic duration as a first step in calculating optimistic and pessimistic duration. This research is funded by the directorate of higher education, education and culture Ministry of The Republic of Indonesia under national strategic competition grant scheme.
Keywords: Factors influence, Probabilistic duration, Optimistic, Pessimistic, PERT.
 Senior Lecturer, Civil Engineering Department, Tarumanagara University.
 Lecturer, Management Department, Tarumanagara University
 Lecturer, Psychology Department, Tarumanagara University.
 Lecturer, Management Department, Tarumanagara University
COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS ON TRANSIT FARE VS PRIVATE VEHICLE COST IN JAKARTA
Recently, the use of public transportations had been replaced by private transportations such as motorcycles. It is known that the level of user’s satisfication relatively depends on the services offered to the passengers around the city. The main attributes to be considered by the passengers are travel time, waiting time, and its fare. The discussion about transportation fare does not include the evaluation of transportation service, especially analysis on door to door services like motorcycle’s. The value of time is diversed by various types of transportation services like Bus, Metromini/Kopaja (Medium Bus), and Mikrolet (Micro Bus).
Keywords: Private vehicle, Transit fare, Travel time, Transportation.
 Lecturer, Civil Engineering Faculty, Faculty of Engineering, Tarumanagara University.